South America is a magnificent continent. It is home to the Amazon River, which is the largest globally, and the Atacama Desert, which is the driest place in the world. As the 4th largest continent, it extends from the Gulf of Darien, the northwestern side, and the Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the South. The continent includes various islands, including the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), Falkland Islands (UK), Easter Island (Chile), and the Chiloe and Juan Fernandez archipelagos (Chile). Today, the continent is home to the citizens of Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana, Brazil, French Guiana, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, and Bolivia. It is possible to consider the physical geography, resources, human geography, and environment separately. Indigenous populations and the connection to their physical environment deeply influence South America’s human landscape. The deep relationships continue flourishing on the continent through religion, celebration, and political action. Its population is estimated at 418.76 million people. About ninety percent of South Americans are Christians, eighty-two percent are Catholic, and eight percent are other Christian denominations. They mainly include Evangelicals, Protestants, and Orthodoxy. This accounts for nineteen percent of Christians worldwide. Marranos, Crypto-Jews, Anusim, and conversos were essential aspects of the life of colonists in Latin America.
When it comes to urban areas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Buenos Aires, Argentina, have the largest Jewish population. In Peru and Brazil, Shinto-derived Japanese New Religions and Japanese Buddhism are common. Korean Confucianism is particularly found in Brazil, while Chinese Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism are spread throughout the content. Kardecist Spiritism is also found in several nations. When it comes to race, the South American demographics display a mixture of Europeans, Amerindians, Africans, Marranos, Anusim, and to a lesser extent Romanis, Arabs, and East Asians. A mixture of European and Amerindian ancestry is particularly referred to as caboclo/mameluco or mestizo. The Castizos are individuals whose DNA is mainly European with the assimilation of Indigenous markers. In most South American nations, a mixture of African and Amerindian ancestry is called cafuzo or zambo. A mixture of African or European ancestry is called mulatto. A mix of Japanese and European is called hafu or ainoko.